Matthew White Ridley is an English journalist, author, biologist, and businessman. He has written several science books including the The Red Queen (1994), Genome (2000) and The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves (2010). Ridley has been short-listed twice for the Samuel Johnson prize for non-fiction. In 2011, he won the Hayek Prize, which “honors the book published within the past two years that best reflects Hayek’s vision of economic and individual liberty.” Ridley also gave the Angus Millar Lecture on “scientific heresy” at the RSA in 2011 and his TED.com talk on “when ideas have sex” has been viewed 1.3m times. Ridley was educated at Eton College from 1970–1975 and then went on to Magdalen College of the University of Oxford and completed a Bachelor of Arts with first class honours in zoology and then a Doctor of Philosophy in zoology in 1983. Ridley worked as the science editor of The Economist from 1984 to 1987 and was then its Washington correspondent from 1987 to 1989 and American editor from 1990 to 1992.