NLS, or the “oN-Line System”, was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. The NLS system was the first to employ the practical use of hypertext links, the mouse (co-invented by Engelbart and colleague Bill English), raster-scan video monitors, information organized by relevance, screen windowing, presentation programs, and other modern computing concepts. It was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, NASA, and the U.S. Air Force. NLS was demonstrated by Engelbart on December 9, 1968 to a large audience at that year’s Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco. This has since been dubbed “The Mother of All Demos”, as it not only demonstrated the groundbreaking features of NLS, but also involved assembling some remarkable state-of-the-art video technologies. Engelbart’s onstage terminal was linked to a massive video projector loaned by the NASA Ames Research Center and, via leased telephone lines, to ARC’s SDS 940 computer in Menlo Park. On a 22-foot high screen with video insets, the audience could follow Engelbart’s actions on his display, observe how he used the mouse, and watch as members of his team in Menlo Park joined in the presentation.
Luis A. Caffarelli is an Argentinian mathematician and leader in the field of partial differential equations and their applications. Caffarelli received great recognition with his breakthrough paper “The regularity of free boundaries in higher dimensions” published in 1977 in Acta Mathematica. Since then, he has been considered one of the world’s leading expert in free boundary problems and nonlinear partial differential equations. He developed several regularity results for fully nonlinear elliptic equations including the Monge-Ampere equation. He is also famous for his contributions to homogenization. Recently, he has taken an interest in Integro-differential equations. A highly cited and one of his most celebrated results regards the Partial regularity of suitable weak solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations obtained in 1982 in collaboration with Louis Nirenberg and Robert V. Kohn.
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, and activist. He is an Institute Professor and Professor (Emeritus) in the Department of Linguistics & Philosophy at MIT, where he has worked for over 50 years. Chomsky has been described as the “father of modern linguistics” and a major figure of analytic philosophy. His work has influenced fields such as computer science, mathematics, and psychology. Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the Chomsky hierarchy, the universal grammar theory, and the Chomsky–Schützenberger theorem. Ideologically identifying with anarchism and libertarian socialism, Chomsky is known for his critiques of U.S. foreign policy and contemporary capitalism, and he has been described as a prominent cultural figure. His media criticism has included Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988), co-written with Edward S. Herman, an analysis articulating the propaganda model theory for examining the media. According to the Arts and Humanities Citation Index in 1992, Chomsky was cited as a source more often than any other living scholar from 1980 to 1992, and was the eighth most cited source. Chomsky is the author of over 100 books.
Judd Apatow is an American film producer, director, and screenwriter. Best known for his work in comedy films, he is the founder of Apatow Productions and also developed the cult television series Freaks and Geeks, Undeclared and Girls. Apatow’s work has won numerous awards including a Primetime Emmy Award (for The Ben Stiller Show), a Hollywood Comedy Award, and an AFI Award for his movie Bridesmaids. His work has also been nominated for Grammy Awards, PGA Awards, Golden Globe Awards and Academy Awards (for Bridesmaids). In October 2012, Vanity Fair announced that Apatow would be guest-editing their comedy Issue, the first person to ever do so. It has also been reported that Apatow will guest-write on an episode of The Simpsons that is due sometime in 2013-2014. In 2007, he was ranked #1 on Entertainment Weekly’s The 50 Smartest People in Hollywood. In the 2013 Critics Choice Award Nominations from the Broadcast Film Critics Association, Apatow’s film This Is 40 was nominated for Best Comedy as were Leslie Mann and Paul Rudd for their performances in the film. On January 10, 2013, the Broadcast Film Critics Association awarded Apatow the “Critics’ Choice Louis XIII Genius Award” named after a cognac. On October 3, 2013, The San Diego Film Festival awarded Apatow the esteemed “Visionary Filmmaker Award”.
Peter Pohl is a Swedish author and former director and screenwriter of short films. He has received prizes for several of his books and films, as well as for his entire work. From 1966 until his retirement in 2005, he was lecturer in Numerical analysis at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Peter Pohl was born on 5 December 1940 in Hamburg, Germany. He lost his father during World War II and moved to Sweden with his mother in 1945, where he started school in 1947. He went to the Södra Latin gymnasium in Stockholm until 1959. During this period, he engaged in medium-distance running, with good results, but he quit running when he was 19 years old. From his 15th until his 30th (1970), Pohl was part of the schools summercamp at Värmdö and later at Blidö. This period of his life is described in the books that form the Rainbow Series and are of particular influence of his other books. He studied mathematics and physics and was a research assistant at the Swedish Defence Research Establishment for several years, starting in 1963. Pohl soon returned to university in order to graduate at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, where he received his doctorate in Numerical analysis in 1975. He became a lecturer in Numerical analysis and wrote several textbooks on this subject.
Eric Steven Raymond, often referred to as ESR, is an American computer programmer, author and open source software advocate. After the 1997 publication of The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Raymond was for a number of years frequently quoted as an unofficial spokesman for the open source movement. He is also known for his work on the popular Roguelike game Nethack for which he wrote the Guidebook, in addition to being a member of the “Dev-Team”. More recently, he is recognized in certain circles for his 1990 edit and later updates of the Jargon File, currently in print as the The New Hacker’s Dictionary. Born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1957, Raymond lived in Venezuela as a child. His family moved back to Pennsylvania in 1971. Raymond said in an interview that his cerebral palsy motivated him to go into computing. Raymond has spoken in more than fifteen countries on six continents, including a lecture at Microsoft. He wrote CML2, a source code configuration system; while originally intended for the Linux kernel, it was rejected by kernel developers. Raymond attributed this rejection to “kernel list politics”. Linus Torvalds on the other hand said in a 2007 mailing list post that as a matter of policy, the development team preferred more incremental changes.
Damian Hess, better known by his stage name MC Frontalot, is a Brooklyn-based hip hop musician and self-proclaimed “world’s 579th greatest rapper”. He is best known in nerdcore hip hop and video game culture, for naming the nerdcore subgenre, and performing at Penny Arcade’s annual Penny Arcade Expo. Hess graduated from Wesleyan University in 1996 with degrees in English and Electronic Music. In 2000 he released the song “Nerdcore Hiphop”. The song became an immediate hit in the geek and nerd communities. The rap subgenre of nerdcore hip hop, which had already been in development by various performers, embraced the title and has since been expanding rapidly. Many consider Hess the founder of nerdcore. However, he has pointed out on his information webpage that many artists came before whom he considers his peers. Hess released his first studio album on August 27, 2005. Entitled Nerdcore Rising, the album contains six new songs, along with 10 remixed versions of past tracks. Some of the new tracks contain production by popular online musicians from Song Fight!, including indie rock and hip hop artist Doctor Popular.